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Plastic: Classification, properties, certificates, applications of plastic in the interior and exterior decoration materials industry

Plastic is a popular material in today's life. To classify this material, we can rely on many of the following factors.

  • By SPI code (PETE, HDPE, PVC, LDPE, PP, PS, Other)
  • According to the effect of temperature (thermoplastic, thermosetting plastic, elastic plastic)
  • By application (common plastics, technical plastics, specialized plastics).
Classify plastics by SPI code, by effect with temperature and by application
Classify plastics by SPI code, by effect with temperature and by application

Plastic is widely used in many different fields due to its outstanding features such as: flexibility, lightness, durability, electrical insulation, heat insulation, ease of recycling,...

According to Ellen MacArthur, founder of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, “Plastic is a wonderful material because it is light and durable. It can be used to make a variety of products, from bottles to cars, without adding significant weight.”

Therefore, plastic can achieve many quality certificates for sustainability, health safety, etc. and is commonly used in the construction materials industry for interior and exterior decoration, etc.

1

What is plastic?

Plastic (plastic, plastic, etc.) is a material with special properties, defined in many different aspects:

  • By application: Plastic is a material used to produce many product lines that serve human life and the development of many economic sectors from food packaging, tables, chairs, bottles, electrical pipes, and materials. construction to electronic components,...
  • According to chemistry: Plastic is a synthetic or semi-synthetic material made of macromolecular compounds, formed by the association of many small units called monomers repeated many times.
Plastic is a particularly popular material in life
Plastic is a particularly popular material in life (Source: shutterstock.com)
2

How many types of plastic are there?

There are many different types of plastic, depending on how they are classified. Below is some information about popular plastic lines that you can refer to.

According to SPI code

SPI (Society of the Plastics Industry) code is a system of symbols used to classify plastics. SPI was introduced by the American Plastics Industry Trade Association in 1988 and includes 7 symbols, from 1 to 7, using a triangle of three curved arrows, containing numbers inside, each number corresponding to a different types of plastic.

There are 7 types of plastic according to SPI codes
There are 7 types of plastic according to SPI codes

PETE

This type of plastic, whose full name is Polyethylene Terephthalate, is easily recyclable, hard, durable, light and transparent. Polyethylene Terephthalate plastic is popular in the form of bottles, jars, food trays, sauce packages, etc.

PETE plastic is denoted number 1
PETE plastic is denoted number 1

HDPE

HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) is a high-density thermoplastic that can withstand many harsh weather conditions. This is considered one of the safest types of plastic for human health. HDPE plastic is almost non-degradable and can be completely recycled, most commonly in plastic pipes, detergent containers, outdoor plastic wood, etc.

HDPE plastic is denoted number 2
HDPE plastic is denoted number 2

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastic is the third most common type of plastic in the world but is difficult to recycle. PVC is often used to make water pipes, electrical wires, roofing sheets, windows, plastic panels, etc.

PVC plastic is denoted number 3
PVC plastic is denoted number 3

LDPE

LDPE (Low-Density Polyethylene) plastic has low density, is soft and flexible, so it is used to make bags, food wrap, packaging, etc. LDPE is resistant to chemicals and less susceptible to bacterial contamination, so it is used to Preserving food at many different temperature conditions.

LDPE plastic is denoted number 4
LDPE plastic is denoted number 4

PP

Polypropylene (PP) plastic has good heat resistance properties, so it is used as a material to hold hot food or hot liquids, etc. PP plastic can be recycled, but the cost to recycle this type of plastic is quite high.

PP plastic is denoted number 5
PP plastic is denoted number 5

PS

PS plastic (Polystyrene) popular in the form of packaging, foam boxes, etc. This type of plastic is almost not recycled because of its high cost and difficulty in collection.

PS plastic is denoted number 6
PS plastic is denoted number 6

Other

Refers to plastic types other than the above 6 types, typically polycarbonate (PC) plastic, ABS plastic, nylon plastic, etc. Among the plastic types in number 7, there are types that are recycled and not recycled, so the utensils with the number 7 symbol should not be placed in the recycling bin.

OTHERS plastic is denoted number 7
OTHERS plastic is denoted number 7

According to the effect with temperature

Based on the effect with temperature, plastics are divided into the following 3 main groups.

Thermoplastic

When heated to a certain temperature, thermoplastic will soften and can be shaped into many different shapes when the temperature is lowered. The outstanding feature of this type of plastic is that it can be melted and shaped many times without changing its chemical structure, so it can be recycled many times.

Easily shaped thermoplastics are used for electrical wire sheathing
Easy-to-shape thermoplastic is used to cover electrical wires (Source: freepik.com)

Thermosetting plastic

When heated to a certain temperature, thermosetting plastic will change from liquid to solid and when the temperature is lowered it cannot soften or change shape. Therefore, thermosetting plastics can only be shaped once and cannot be recycled.

Thermosetting plastic is a permanently processed material that is difficult to change shape
Thermosetting plastic is a permanently processed material that is difficult to change shape (Source: harfieldtableware.co.uk)

Plastic is elastic

This is a type of plastic that can stretch and restore its original shape when the impact force is removed. Elastic plastic will have high flexibility and can withstand large impact forces.

Elastic plastic is plastic with high flexibility
Elastic plastic is plastic with high flexibility (Source: freepik.com)

By app

Based on application, plastic is divided into 3 main types as follows.

Common plastic

This is the most commonly used type of plastic in life, accounting for about 80% of total plastic production in the world. They are used in many different applications at a low price, easy to process and have many properties that meet today's needs. Commonly used plastics are PE, PS, PVC,...

Common plastics are common in life with many different applications
Common plastics are common in life with many different applications (Source: freepik.com)

Engineering plastics

This is a plastic line with high technical features, long-term durability, heat resistance, and chemical resistance better than common plastics, popular in industrial products.

Engineering plastics are popular in industry
Popular engineering plastics in industry (Source: allesd.en.made-in-china.com)
Anti-static sheet made of engineering plastic
Anti-static sheet made of engineering plastic (Source: allesd.en.made-in-china.com)

Specialized plastic

It is a type of plastic with special properties, used for specific applications that require highly specialized features such as medical equipment, aerospace, electronics, etc. Specialized plastics are only produced in limited quantities. small amount and very expensive.

Specialized plastic in the medical field
Specialized plastics in the medical field (Source: freepik.com)
3

What are the outstanding properties of plastic?

Plastic has become an important material in life and industry today because it has many outstanding features.

Plasticity

We can process plastic into many different shapes without deformation or cracking through injection molding, blowing, molding, etc. This property allows plastic to be used in many applications that require flexibility. highly active.

Lightweight

Plastic has a lower density than many materials such as metal and glass. Thanks to that, this material is the perfect choice for many applications to help save transportation and construction costs.

Durability

Plastic is resistant to chemical corrosion, oxidation and mold, so there are some types of plastic that can withstand high temperatures, resist UV rays, and can be used outdoors.

Insulation, heat insulation, easy to recycle

Plastic is also a material that helps prevent electric current and heat transfer. Some types of plastic are also easy to recycle, contributing to reducing waste and protecting the environment.

4

What certifications does plastic meet?

Plastic materials meet certifications to ensure material quality and safety for users' health. Below are some of the certifications that plastics can achieve.

  • Certificate of safety and health: FDA certification, UL certification,…
  • Sustainability certification: USDA Certified Biobased certification, Cradle to Cradle certification,...
5

Application of plastic in the interior and exterior decoration materials industry?

Possessing many outstanding properties, plastic plays an important role in the interior and exterior decoration materials industry such as:

  • PVC plastic cladding: is a line of interior decoration materials specialized for wall cladding, ceiling cladding, TV wall cladding,... with main ingredients from PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride). PVC plastic makes this panel lighter in weight than many other materials, termite resistant, perfectly waterproof,...
  • PS plastic panels: is an interior decoration material used for wall cladding, ceiling cladding,... with PS (Polystyrene) plastic making up the largest proportion. Thanks to being made from PS plastic, this panel line has many outstanding features such as: 99,99% termite resistance, waterproof, good heat resistance, ability to eliminate noise, easy to install,...
  • Outdoor plastic wood: Outdoor plastic wood is a decorative material specialized for exterior spaces with the main ingredients being wood powder, plastic powder (HDPE, PVC,...) and additives. Plastic powder accounts for 30% of the structure of plastic wood, helping to improve material durability, create hardness, increase termite resistance, water resistance,...
  • Plastic flooring: Plastic flooring is an interior flooring material made from plastic (mainly PVC combined with stone powder) that is light in weight, has good water resistance,...
  • Decorative plastic clips: Decorative plastic braces are specialized accessories for interior spaces made mainly from plastic (PVC, PS,...) combined with a number of other additives.

Plastic is an important material in life and plays an essential role in many different industries and fields. Overall, this material has great value and potential for future development.

  1. https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chất_dẻo
  2. http://sunmaxx.com.vn/nhua-la-gi-nhung-dieu-can-biet-ve-hat-nhua
  3. https://tttt.ninhbinh.gov.vn/tuyen-truyen-phong-chong-rac-thai-nhua/nhan-biet-cac-loai-nhua-2936.html
  4. https://europlas.com.vn/blog/nhua-la-gi-nhung-dieu-ban-can-biet-ve-nhua
  5. https://hamakyu.com.vn/ma-nhan-biet-cac-loai-nhua-tu-spi-la-gi

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